Category: Mental Health

26 Creative Ways to Teach Breathing Strategies to Kids

Title-Creative Ways to Teach Breathing Strategies to Kids

One of the most powerful skills we can teach our children is the effective use of breath. Calm, mindful breathing exercises are skills that all of us can cultivate when we simply slow down and pay attention to our breathing. Deep breathing can help us feel calmer, more focused, grounded, and better able to make thoughtful decisions when we need to decide what to do next.

Mindful breathing exercises improve self-control, problem-solving skills, self-awareness, attention, memory, and sleep. They also help to regulate our brains and nervous systems. Mindful breathing is more than just a self-regulation coping tool, it’s also a practice which helps to grow the thoughtful, prefrontal cortex part of our brain, a region that is still developing in our children until their mid- to late-twenties!

Most of us don’t breathe effectively when we’re distressed. When we’re distressed, our breathing becomes short and shallow. This short, shallow breathing is sufficient to keep us from fainting but not enough to relax our muscles. If our breathing is deep, slow and rhythmical, our red blood cells can carry oxygen to all parts of our body and cause our muscles to relax. If the muscles are relaxed then there is no message traveling from the body to the brain to request that cortisol (the stress hormone our body releases when our body is tensed and stressed to fight perceived threats) be released to fight the threat. If no cortisol is released, there is no fight or flight response, and if there is no fight or flight response, then there is no anxiety. You see, the more cortisol, the more anxious we feel; the more anxious we feel, the less likely we are to think logically and regain control. Our prefrontal cortex literally goes off line when cortisol is released.

The cool thing is, every time we engage in mindful breathing or other calming skill, our body encourages our brain to release the antidote to cortisol: oxytocin. Oxytocin is most well known as the “love hormone,” but it also has a calming and soothing effect, which is exactly what we want versus feeling stressed and wound up. Unfortunately though, the half-life of oxytocin is less than that of cortisol, meaning that we need to keep up our efforts to maintain control of our mind and our emotions.


This is where teaching and practicing mindful breathing comes in. Because oxytocin has a shorter half-life than that of cortisol, research shows that to remain our most calm and logical self, we need to be exercising good, deep breathing quite frequently, from the time we wake up in the morning to the minute we go to bed at night. Additionally, practicing these exercises frequently – even when we’re calm – increases the likelihood that we’ll remember how to breathe and what to do when an incident does happen that increases our body’s stress.

So, if practicing mindful breathing is most effective when practiced regularly and frequently, you can imagine that sometimes it can get a little hard persuading our kids to get into such a great habit. Additionally, many of us don’t practice good breathing techniques to begin with. Even when calm, most of us grow up breathing from our chest instead of breathing more effectively from our diaphragm (near our tummies). Ultimately, we could all benefit from practicing mindful breathing exercises and making this one of our regular, frequent habits!

Following are 26 of my most favorite ways to teach kids how to practice mindful breathing. Frankly, I like to use a variety of these in my own breathing exercise habit to keep things more exciting myself!

1. Belly Breathing

  1. Lie on your back or slouch in your seat, and place a small rubber duck or small stuffed animal on your belly.
  2. Breathe in deeply through your nose and feel the duck or stuffed animal rise, and then feel it lower as you slowly exhale through your mouth. (Your belly should expand outward as you inhale and lower as you exhale.)
  3. Rock the rubber duck or stuffed animal to sleep using the rise and fall of your belly.

Child smelling flower

2. Flower and Leaf Breaths

  1. Breathe in, pretending that you are smelling a flower.
  2. Breathe out slowly, pretending you are blowing a leaf.
  3. Repeat.

3. Finger Counting

  1. Hold both hands comfortably on your lap, palms facing up.
  2. Touch each thumb to index finger, and slowly breathe in through your nose and blow out through your mouth. Try to exhale a couple seconds longer than the in-breath.
  3. Touch each thumb to middle finger and breathe in, then out.
  4. Touch each thumb to your ring finger, then breathe in, then out.
  5. Touch each thumb to your pinky finger, then breathe in, then out.
  6. Stretch your fingers, then repeat the process, but now go in the opposite direction (starting with thumbs to pinky).

4. Blow It Away

  1. Sit comfortably. Cup your hands together with your palms facing up to form a bowl.
  2. Imagine your worries inside your hands.
  3. Inhale through your nose. Exhale by blowing the worries out of your hands.
  4. Repeat.

Bunny sniffing

5. Bunny Sniffs

  1. Sit up tall and still like a bunny.
  2. When you breathe in through your nose, take 3 quick, short sniffs in a row.
  3. Pause for a moment.
  4. Slowly breathe out through your mouth.
  5. Do the Bunny Sniff several times.

6. Equal Breathing

  1. Sit in a comfortable position.
  2. As you breathe in, count in your mind, 1-2-3-4-5.
  3. As you breathe out, count in your mind, 1-2-3-4-5.
  4. Repeat.


7. Firework Breath

  1. Lower yourself into a squat position while your palms are pressed together.
  2. Take a deep breath through your nose.
  3. Exhale while you jump and shoot your arms straight up and out.
  4. Repeat.

8. Cookie Breathing

  1. Put your hand on your tummy, where your belly button is.
  2. Slowly breathe in and out. When you breathe in, your tummy should move out. When you breathe out, your tummy should move in.
  3. Breathe in and out like this and feel your tummy move in and out. Make sure your shoulders and chest are relaxed and still. Only your tummy should be moving.
  4. While breathing in, pretend you are smelling the aroma of freshly baked cookies.
  5. But they’re hot! So gently blow the cookies to cool them down while you breathe out.

9. Hot Cocoa

  1. Pretend you’re holding a mug of hot cocoa cradled between both of your hands.
  2. Bring the mug near your face. Take a slow breath in, and imagine that you are smelling the yummy chocolate aroma.
  3. Slowly, with gentleness, exhale, pretending to blow the steaming hot cocoa to cool it down.
  4. Repeat.


10. Tire Breath

  1. Sit comfortably. Take a deep breath in through your nose, filling up your entire stomach like a big round tire with air.
  2. Pause and then slowly release the air through your teeth, like a tire with a leak.
  3. Repeat.

11. Tissue Breathing

  1. Separate a 2-ply tissue so that you are left with only the 1-ply.
  2. Toss the 1-ply tissue into the air and blow gently to keep the tissue in the air. Don’t let it fall to the floor!
  3. Continue doing this, seeing how long you can keep the tissue floating in the air without letting it fall to the floor.

Number Eight

12. Trace Eight

  1. Pretend that your index finger is an imaginary pencil.
  2. As you breathe in, trace or “draw” the top part of the number 8 in the air, on the table, or on your leg.
  3. Trace the bottom part of the number 8 as you breathe out.
  4. If you have a Breathing Board, you can also use this to guide you. Or you can draw the number 8 on a piece of paper and trace the 8 with your finger if it helps.


13. Balloon Breathing

  1. Think of your belly as a balloon.
  2. Put your hand on your belly to feel it rise and fall.
  3. Take a deep breath in through your nose to fill your balloon.
  4. Hold your breath for 2 seconds.
  5. Breathe out through your mouth slowly to deflate your balloon.
  6. Repeat balloon breathing 4-5 times.

14. Rainbow Breaths

  1. Pick your favorite color of the rainbow.
  2. Paint the color in a rainbow in the sky while you take a deep breath in, then out.
  3. Continue painting the sky with the different colors of the rainbow.

15. Bubble Breath

  1. Pretend you’re holding a bubble wand in your hand.
  2. Take a deep breath in. Hold that breath for a moment.
  3. Slowly breathe out.
  4. Visualize shimmery bubbles floating into the sky. Imagine the bubbles carrying any worry away.

16. Sunshine Breath

  1. Stand comfortably.
  2. On inhale sweep your arms up in a big circle until your fingers hug above your head.
  3. Exhale as you circle your arms around.
  4. Repeat.

17. Centering

  1. Sit comfortably.
  2. Inhale deeply as you sweep your arms out to the side and up overhead, bringing your palms to touch.
  3. Keep your palms together. Slowly slide them towards your head as you exhale.
  4. Repeat.


18. Whale Breath

  1. Lie on your back. Place both feet flat on the floor with your knees pointing up. Extend your arms out in a “t” position.
  2. Take a deep breath in through your nose.
  3. Drop your knees to your right as you exhale.
  4. Breathe in as you move your knees up and exhale, dropping your knees to the left.
  5. Repeat.

19. Chillax

  1. Sit comfortably.
  2. Slowly inhale, saying the words, “Breathe in” to yourself.
  3. As you slowly breathe out through your nose, say the words, “Breathe out” to yourself.
  4. Repeat.

20. 4 Beats Breathing

  1. Sit comfortably. Place your fingers on your pulse.
  2. Breathe in as you count your pulse beats, 1-2-3-4.
  3. Slowly breathe out as you count your pulse beats, 1-2-3-4.
  4. Repeat.

Book Reading

21. Book Breathing

  1. Lie on your back in a comfortable position. Relax your whole body.
  2. Place a book on your stomach and begin to inhale. Watch the book rise.
  3. Exhale slowly as you watch the book push your tummy down.
  4. Repeat.

22. Side Breathing

  1. Lie on your side and lean your head on your hand.
  2. Place your other hand on your outer ribs.
  3. Breathe deeply until you feel the ribs expanding in your hand.
  4. Exhale while you watch your ribs pull in.
  5. Repeat.

Bumble Bee

23. Bumble Bee Breathing

  1. Sit comfortably.
  2. Place your thumbs over your ears and your other fingers over your eyes.
  3. Take a deep breath in while your belly expands.
  4. Exhale through your nose, making a humming sound.
  5. Repeat.

24. Taco Tongue

  1. Curl both sides of your tongue, rolling it into a taco.
  2. Breathe in through the taco.
  3. Exhale slowly through your nose as you move your tongue back inside your mouth.
  4. Repeat.


25. Dragon Breath

  1. Sit comfortably.
  2. Take a deep breath in through your nose while your belly pushes out.
  3. Open your mouth and let the air escape with an “Aaaaah.”
  4. Repeat.


26. Dog Breaths

  1. Sit on your knees. Rest your hands on your thighs.
  2. Inhale through your nose.
  3. Open your mouth wide, stick out your tongue and use 3 quick exhales while making a “Haaa” sound.
  4. Repeat.



Brainwave Entrainment and Binaural Beats: Could They Help You?

I first discovered brainwave entrainment several months ago while desperately searching for something (ANYTHING!) to help my ADHD brain focus and be more productive at home and at work. As anyone in the mental health field can attest to, seeing and trying to help clients is only half of what we do. The rest of our time generally gets dedicated to documentation, and no or little focus doesn’t create productive progress note writing. At all. If you ever wonder why we always seem to look so darn busy, it’s because we seriously are! And other fields are finding themselves in similar conundrums. Paperwork and documentation are a large part of most people’s jobs in this day and age (ask any educator or business owner, or pretty much anyone else out there doing their best to make a living). Whether one has ADHD or not, the struggle is real!

So as I spent my time procrastinating, I happened to come upon a Udemy course on sale that day that assured me that they could increase my focus and productivity. I was skeptical, but it was on sale, and I was procrastinating… So I signed up. That’s when I first learned about one of the most effective productivity boosters and anxiety relievers I’ve ever been so fortunate to find. No prescription needed. Brainwave entrainment.

Brainwave entrainment actually isn’t a new concept. It’s been learned about and heavily researched for quite some time actually. The basic premise of brainwave entrainment is that by using certain tools and technologies, like binaural beats, isochronic tones, alpha waves, beta waves, and lots of other types of waves, for example, we can literally alter our brainwaves for the primary purpose of changing the way we feel or our current mood or behavior state. Oh yeah, I was intrigued.

Let’s say you have a very stressful job. Brainwave entrainment would allow you to be able to slow your brain down and operate from a more chilled-out perspective – legally! No drugs required. Or let’s say you’ve been assigned to brainstorm some new innovative ideas for work. You can use brainwave entrainment tools to change your brainwaves to help improve your concentration and actually enhance your creative juices. Need to study for that big college final exam? Brainwave entrainment can enhance your focus and studying so that you’re actually retaining all that information you’re reviewing. Any insomniacs out there? Brainwave entrainment can adjust your brainwaves to the same level they normally operate from when you do sleep, resulting in putting you to sleep in much less time.

There’s actually a lot of things you can use brainwave entrainment for. The research says that using brainwave entrainment tools and technologies, a number of mental and physical benefits can be attained or enhanced. To list a few:

  • pre-exercise energy
  • headache relief
  • hangover relief
  • pain relief
  • lower levels of anxiety
  • stress reduction
  • anger relief
  • improvement of concentration and focus (even in those of us who have been diagnosed with ADHD)
  • increased attention
  • memory boost
  • help with learning and studying
  • assist with improved problem-solving and brainstorming
  • improved critical thinking
  • improved lateral thinking
  • improved mental clarity
  • boost motivation
  • power nap assistance
  • deep sleep
  • lucid dreaming
  • night meditation
  • general relaxation
  • mindful meditation
  • assistance in waking up
  • improved confidence and self-esteem
  • enhanced creativity
  • boost in positive mood
  • improved energy levels
  • increased inspiration
  • improved insight
  • improved intuition
  • progressive brain training

To say I was amazed would be an understatement, but I was still pretty skeptical at first. Then I downloaded a couple binaural beats apps on my phone…

Binaural Beats

A binaural beat is an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves, both with frequencies lower than 1500 Hz, and with less than a 40 Hz difference between them, are presented to a listener dichotically (one through each ear). The results can be so powerful, transformative, and healing, as your attention shifts left and right over your body’s midline. For anyone who has ever had EMDR therapy, crossing the midline is a major contributing factor to why it can be so effective.

Research shows that listening to binaural beats is an emerging and effective method to even stop migraines and aide in chronic pain treatment. Additionally, the healing frequencies of binaural beats are shown to help with symptoms of several other mental health conditions, including ADHD, anxiety, insomnia, and stress!

How Do Binaural Beats Work?

Find your headphones or ear buds and find a quiet place. Make sure that you use both ear buds, one in each ear. As explained by Banzai Labs, “This beat is indirectly perceived as opposed to directly heard since it’s below the range of human hearing. For each brainwave sequence, the frequency of this perceived beat has been engineered to precisely match a target brainwave frequency. The effect on the brainwaves depends on the difference in frequencies of each tone.”

Within minutes, the listener’s own brainwaves begin to fall into step with, and synchronize with, this binaural beat, inducing states ranging from intense concentration and focus to deep sleep. This synchronization process is referred to as “brainwave entrainment.”

Binaural Beats Apps

The best binaural apps will allow you to listen to your favorite music while the binaural beat plays behind it (remember, you can’t hear the beat). Other apps play sounds like ambient music in them, and yet others play various types of white noises or nature sounds. Which app you choose, should you decide to try brainwave entrainment, should be based on the type of music and/or sounds you prefer to hear and find most comfortable.

Personally, I find the binaural beat apps that allow me to sync my music playlists to the binaural beats more preferable than listening to rain and thunderstorms, but that’s just me. I work better listening to music I already know I like, but this is obviously a personal choice for everyone.

To find binaural beat apps, go to your phone’s App Store and search for “binaural beats.” You’ll find a number of these apps. I recommend reading the reviews and checking their ratings, as some seem to work better and are found more preferable than others. Also, decide what purpose you would like to use binaural beats to help you with. For instance, I sought out apps that specifically noted being able to help concentration and focus, creativity, anxiety relief, and stress relief. But if you’re an insomniac desperately wanting sleep, look for the apps that specify that they are for improved relaxation, mindfulness, and sleep. See, each binaural beat affects a different brainwave or set of brainwaves in your brain. If I’m looking to improve my focus but download a binaural beats app that specifies that it helps with sleep, those binaural beats apps are not going to help me in my desperate search to improve my concentration and be more productive.

My personal favorite binaural beats app is called Brain Wave 35 Binaural Series, which is one of the few binaural beats apps that does come at a cost (this particular one cost either $1.99 or $2.99 and the buyer gains permanent access to the app). 35 Binaural Brainwave Entrainment Programs has binaural beats for things like focus, memory, relaxation, sleep, power naps, mediation, energy, positive mood, anxiety relief, stress relief, relaxation, meditation, and much more. With this particular app, I’m able to play my choice binaural beats with ambience, nature sounds, or sync to my iTunes playlists. It can be used on the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch, so I also liked that I could use it on many devices. I also understand that one could use this app with Spotify or even with an Audio Book Reader; instructions are provided in the app description. (Please note, I am not affiliated in any way with the company that created this app, nor am I receiving any payment for endorsing its product; I just really like this app!)

Are There Any Potential Negative Side Effects to Listening to Binaural Beats?

Based on the current scientific research available, there are no serious risks or side effects of listening to binaural beats that have been reported. Obviously, you don’t want to listen at a very high volume, as high volumes can damage your ear drums. It is recommended that you use over-the-ear headphones if you have them to minimize any potential damage, the best being noise-cancelling headphones, but I personally just use the earbuds that my phone came with.

Realize, however, that people are very seldom deficient in a certain brainwave type in all areas of their brain. We’re all different when it comes to the distribution of our brainwaves. Boosting a certain brainwave state may be beneficial for one person, but emotionally uncomfortable for another. So, it can be rather “hit and miss.”

If brainwave entrainment leaves you with any rare, but unwanted side effects or discomfort, you’re probably encouraging a range of brainwaves that are already excessive in some area of your brain. If you’re concerned about this and would prefer, a way to get around this is to attain a brain map to see what your brain’s strengths and weaknesses are, and see what, if any, brainwaves could use some binaural beat encouragement.

BrainWorks Neurotherapy offers a few general guidelines to follow if you decide to use brainwave entrainment tools and technologies; following these are said to “greatly limit your risk of any discomfort:”

  • Don’t overdo it; most cases of any side effects come after overuse. A fifteen minute session is sufficient to begin (or 3-5 minutes if using audio/visual entrainment). Everyone reacts differently, and this will help you determine your sensitivity before jumping in.
  • If you experience increased anxiety, overwhelming subconscious images, convulsions, nausea, headaches, dizziness, or increased heartbeat, discontinue use immediately and permanently. Note that these types of rare reactions are more associated with using audio/visual entrainment tools, not the app types I’ve discussed in this article.
  • Do not use brainwave entrainment if you have any brainwave hyper-arousal or instability symptoms.

BrainWorks Neurotherapy does note that “the vast majority of people have no ill-effects from brainwave entrainment.” The most common side effect is simply feeling a little unusual for a while. If you do happen to experience any unwanted effects, stop using it, give it a few days, and you will return to normal.

What’s Normal and What’s Not? Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

In follow up to my last post about what sexual behaviors are normal and what isn’t normal (or typical) in children ages 0 – 13, this post looks at what normal adolescent sexual behavior looks like and what behaviors are not typical and are more concerning.

Teenage sexual behavior probably doesn’t concern as many parents as much as seeing sexual behaviors in younger children. This has its advantages and disadvantages. While many parents might expect a certain level of sexual behavior to be normal in adolescent development, this also can make it more challenging to identify what is atypical unless or until the behavior becomes more extreme, thus delaying getting appropriate help should it be necessary.

Let’s jump right in to see what sexual behaviors are fairly normal in adolescents.

Normal Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

Normal sexual behavior in adolescents, around the ages of 13 to 17 or 18, may include the following:

  • need for privacy
  • explicit conversation with peers
  • obscenities or jokes that are sexual in nature
  • sexual teasing
  • innuendo or flirting
  • erotic interest
  • masturbation, done in private
  • interest and/or participation in a one-on-one relationship
  • courtship and dating
  • hugging, kissing, holding hands
  • foreplay with consenting partner
  • mutual masturbation
  • monogamous intercourse with similar age partner
  • viewing sexual content for arousal

As parents, our values may tell us to restrict the above types of behavior, but they are not abnormal developmentally, nor are they typically harmful or illegal. Remember, however, parents can and should still educate and set boundaries when it comes to these types of behaviors.

Concerning Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

The following behaviors may raise some concerns in adolescents:

  • preoccupation with sex, interfering in daily life functioning
  • anxiety regarding sexuality
  • pornographic interest
  • having sex with multiple partners (not being monogamous)
  • being interested in sexually aggressive themes
  • targeting individuals or embarrassing others
  • violating body space or personal boundaries
  • single occurrence of peeping or exposing oneself
  • “grinding” with peer of similar age
  • excessive mooning or obscene gestures
  • intentional spying on others
  • explicit communications/art/actions that are obscene or sexually intimidating
  • repeated exposure of private parts with peers
  • unsafe sexual behavior
  • presence of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or unplanned pregnancy
  • oral sex/intercourse with more than 2 years age difference (chronological age or developmental/mental age)


Extremely Concerning Sexual Behavior In Adolescents

The following behaviors are extremely concerning if seen in your teen and may require further investigation and/or even professional help or consultation:

  • compulsive masturbation, even if done in private
  • masturbating in public
  • degradation or humiliation of others
  • attempting to expose others’ genitals
  • touching others without permission
  • chronic preoccupation with pornography
  • use of sexually aggressive porn or child pornography
  • sexual conversation or contact with significantly younger or older individuals (typically by 4 or more years)
  • grabbing, goosing, and explicit sexual threats
  • sexual contact with animals
  • penetrating another person forcefully
  • taking sexual images of others to exploit
  • grooming others
  • sending/publishing images without consent
  • sex in exchange for money, drugs, or alcohol
  • disclosure of sexual abuse

Also of concern are implications of unequal power during sexual activity: strength differential, power of popularity, self-image differential, arbitrary labels (“leader,” “boss,” etc.), and fantasy roles in sexual play (“king,” “doctor,” “daddy,” etc.). An important question to ask is whether it’s fun for both or just one.

Other obvious signs of inequality are age differences, size differences, having authority (such as when babysitting or tutoring), or groups against one person or a smaller group.

It’s critical to judge each situation individually. For instance, a significant age difference can certainly be concerning, but if a 17-year-old is in a monogamous relationship with a 22-year-old, we need to delve deeper and consider whether the relationship is consensual or if the relationship involves coercion or control or disrespect.

Illegal Sexual Behavior

It’s always important to remember that the following sexual behaviors are illegal for all age groups:

  • sexual abuse
  • sexual assault
  • molestation
  • sexual harassment
  • obscene calls, texts, emails, posts
  • voyeurism
  • exhibitionism
  • grinding against another without consent
  • child pornography
  • rape
  • beastiality

Continue to watch for more upcoming posts dealing with sexual behavior, sexual abuse, abuse prevention, and body safety education!

What’s Normal and What’s Not? Sexual Behavior in Children

For most parents, noticing when your child is exhibiting sexual behaviors can be shocking and even scary. Most parents’ first question they ask themselves is, “Has my child been sexually abused?” or “Has something sexually inappropriate happened to my child?” The panic sets in.

These are common, normal responses that most parents express to me when they call my office to ask about their child’s recent sexual behavior, desperately trying to figure out if their child’s sexual behavior is “normal.” Being a parent myself, I can completely understand these fears and concerns. It is one of the most horrifying things that can enter a parent’s mind, to wonder or know that their child has experienced sexual abuse, and it’s a question that enters many parents’ minds at least at some point in their child’s developmental years, and their fears aren’t necessarily unfounded. Retrospective research indicates that as many as 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will experience some form of sexual abuse before they turn age 18. Not only that, but children are most often sexually abused by someone they know and trust.

Unfortunately, many kids do not disclose being sexually abused. According to The National Child Traumatic Stress Network,  reasons for nondisclosure can include:

  • threats of bodily harm of child and/or family
  • fears of being removed from their home
  • fear of not being believed
  • shame or guilt
  • fear of getting the abuser in trouble if the perpetrator is someone the child or family cares about
  • the belief that the sexual abuse was their own fault
  • fear of getting in trouble themselves
  • not understanding that the perpetrator’s actions are abusive, especially if the abuse is made into a game

It is important to note that although many children who have experienced sexual abuse show behavioral and emotional changes, others may not. That is why it is critical to focus not only on detection, but also prevention strategies and open communication between caregiver and child.

So, what’s normal sexual behavior look like?

Normal (common), age appropriate sexual behaviors can vary by age and developmental level of the child. Let’s start with the youngest ages. Please note that the following are not exhaustive lists.

Age Appropriate “Normal” Sexual Behavior – ages 0 – 4 years

  • Comfort being nude
  • Holding own genitals
  • Unself-conscious masturbation; touches/rubs own genitals when going to sleep, when tense, excited, or afraid
  • Interest in body parts and functions; interested in watching/peeking at people doing bathroom functions
  • “Show me yours, I’ll show you mine;’ “playing doctor” games with same age peers
  • Touching/looking at private parts of familiar children/adults (e.g., in bath)
  • Using slang words for bathroom functions
  • Asks about genitals, breasts, intercourse, babies
  • Shows others his/her genitals
  • Interest in urination and defecation
  • Likes to hear and tell “dirty” jokes
  • Draws genitals on human figures for artistic expression or because figure is being portrayed in the nude

Age Appropriate “Normal” Sexual Behavior – ages 5 – 9 years

  • Heightened sense of privacy about bodies
  • Body touching/holding own genitals
  • Masturbation with awareness of privacy; touches/rubs own genitals when going to sleep, when tense, excited, or afraid
  • Curiosity about others’ bodies
  • Slang words and swearing for body parts; uses “dirty” words for bathroom functions, genitals, and sex
  • Accidental access to pornography (mild); looks at nude pictures (not excessively, not redirected)
  • Shows others his/her genitals
  • Interest in urination and defecation
  • Asks about genitals, breasts, intercourse, babies

Age Appropriate “Normal” Sexual Behavior – ages 10 – 13 years

  • Growing need for privacy
  • Masturbation in private
  • Curiosity/seeking information
  • Use of sexual language
  • Interest in/participation in girlfriend and boyfriend relationships
  • Hugging, kissing, touching known same age peers
  • Exhibitionism with same age peers within context of play (e.g., flashing, mooning)
  • Use of mobile phones with known peers

Concerning Sexual Behavior

The following behaviors are concerning sexual behaviors some parents see. This means you, as a parent, should be watchful and possibly even seek consultation, especially if there are a number of these behaviors present in your child or if one or two of these behaviors are prevalent and consistent and continue despite repeated redirection (and possibly even consequences) by the caregiver.

Concerning Sexual Behavior – ages 0 – 4 years

  • Masturbation in public, even after repeated redirection
  • Forcing another child in sexual play
  • Sexualized play with dolls
  • Touching parts of animal or unfamiliar adult
  • Masturbation and touching others in preference to other activities
  • Persistently watching others nude or undressing
  • Pulling down other children’s pants/skirts up against their will
  • Wants to be nude in public after parent has redirected
  • Plays with feces, purposely urinates outside of toilet bowl

Concerning Sexual Behavior – ages 5 – 9 years

  • Continually touching self in public, Evan after redirection; rubs genitals on furniture or other objects
  • Persistent nudity/exposing self
  • Continually wanting to touch others inappropriately
  • Touching genitals of animals after redirection
  • Persistently watching/following others (e.g., to the bathroom)
  • Pulling other children’s pants down/skirts up against their will
  • Wants to play sex/sexuality games with much older or much younger children
  • Explicit talk/art/play of sexual nature
  • Draws genitalia on some nude figures but not others and on drawings of clothed people; genitals may be drawn disproportionate to size of body
  • Shows fear or anxiety about sexual topics
  • Uses “dirty” words with adults after parent consistently redirects and uses healthy language themselves
  • Plays with feces; purposely urinates outside of toilet bowl
  • Asking peer/adult to engage in specific sexual act(s)

Concerning Sexual Behavior – ages 10 – 13 years

  • Attempting to expose others
  • Preoccupation with masturbation
  • Mutual masturbation with peer/group
  • Seeking out pornography
  • Taking nude sexual images of self
  • Talking about fear of pregnancy or STI
  • Persistent explicit talk/art/play that is sexual or sexually intimidating
  • Changes in behavior (e.g., flirting with adults)
  • Oral sex/intercourse with similar age peer
  • Continually touching self in public, even after repeated redirection; rubs genitals on furniture or other objects
  • Draws genitalia on some nude figures but not others and on drawings of clothed people; genitals may be drawn disproportionate to size of body
  • Asking peer/adult to engage in specific sexual act(s)


The following lists include behaviors that are “red flag” behaviors, indicative of child sexual acting out behaviors. These may be indicators of sexual abuse or another issue related to the child’s sexuality and need assessed right away.

EXTREMELY CONCERNING Sexual Behavior – ages 0 – 4 years

  • Disclosure of sexual abuse
  • Compulsive masturbation/self-injurious
  • Persistent explicit themes in talk/art/play
  • Simulation of sexual touch/activity (with or without clothes)
  • Persistently touching private parts of others
  • Oral sex with other children
  • Forcing other children to engage in sexual activity
  • Sexual knowledge is too great for age
  • Sexual behavior is associated with physical aggression
  • Any sexual behavior involving children who are 4 or more years apart
  • A variety of sexual behaviors displayed on a daily or near-daily basis
  • Behaviors are persistent and child becomes angry if distracted

EXTREMELY CONCERNING Sexual Behavior – ages 5 – 9 years

  • Disclosure of sexual abuse
  • Touching self in exclusion of normal childhood activities
  • Seeking an audience
  • Forcing other children to play sexual games
  • Rubbing genitals on other people
  • Accessing/showing pornography
  • Cyberbullying/grooming other children
  • Persistent bullying involving sexual aggression
  • Persistent sexual activity with animals
  • Endless questions about sex after curiosity is satisfied; sexual knowledge too great for age
  • Forces another child to play doctor, to take off clothes
  • Refuses to put on clothes; exposes self in public
  • Repeatedly plays with or smears feces; purposely urinates on furniture
  • Drawings of intercourse, group sex… sadism, masochism shown
  • Any sexual behavior involving children who are 4 or more years apart
  • A variety of sexual behaviors displayed on a daily or near-daily basis
  • Behaviors are persistent and child becomes angry if distracted

EXTREMELY CONCERNING Sexual Behavior – ages 10 – 13 years

  • Disclosure of sexual abuse
  • Compulsive masturbation, may be in public or private, to the exclusion of normal childhood activities
  • Force or coercion into sexual activity
  • Sexual contact with animals
  • Repeated/chronic peeping
  • Making others watch pornography
  • Touching other children’s genitals without permission
  • Forcing others to expose genitals
  • Penetration of dolls, other children, or animals
  • Oral sex/intercourse with person of different age or developmental ability
  • Refuses to put on clothes; exposes self in public
  • Repeatedly plays with or smears feces; purposely urinates on furniture
  • Rubbing genitals on other people
  • Any sexual behavior involving children who are 4 or more years apart
  • A variety of sexual behaviors displayed on a daily or near-daily basis
  • Behaviors are persistent and child becomes angry if distracted

“Typical” Sexual Behavior

Although parents and caregivers become concerned when a child displays sexual behavior, it is important to remember that some behaviors aren’t uncommon in developing children. Much sexual play with peers is an expression of their natural curiosity and should not be cause for concern.

According to The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, in general, “typical” sexual play and exploration:

  • occurs between kids who play together regularly and know each other well
  • occurs between kids of the same general age and physical size
  • is spontaneous and unplanned
  • is infrequent
  • is voluntary (the children agreed to the behavior and no one seems upset or uncomfortable)
  • is easily diverted when caregivers tell children to stop and explain privacy rules (the children are easily redirected)

Sexual Behavior Problems

Sadly, some childhood sexual behaviors do indicate more than harmless curiosity, however. Sexual behavior problems may pose a risk to the safety and well-being of the child and other children. Sexual behavior problems include any act that:

  • is clearly beyond the child’s developmental stage (for example, a three-year-old attempting to kiss an adult’s genitals)
  • includes threats, force, or aggression
  • involves children of widely different ages or abilities (generally 4 or more years apart in age, such as a 12-year-old “playing doctor” with a four-year-old)
  • Provokes strong emotional reactions in the child, such as anger or anxiety

Please be aware that while sexual abuse can be a cause of sexually reactive behavior or other sexually challenging behaviors, it is not always the case.

Responding to Your Child’s Sexual Behavior

If for some reason your child displays an inappropriate sexual behavior, the following list provides some guidelines for responses.

Guidelines to Follow If You Find Your Child Engaged in Sexual Behavior

The first step is to try to find out what actually happened. It’s important for parents to stay calm. After gathering your own emotions and making sure they’re under control, a parent might calmly tell the children that it’s time to get dressed and then ask the children to separate and go into a different room in the house. After collecting your thoughts – and consulting with your partner, if one is available – the parent could then talk to each child one-on-one.

Here are some questions to ask your child(ten):

  • What were you doing?
  • How did you get the idea?
  • How did you learn about this?
  • How did you feel about doing it?

It’s important to remain calm and keep an even tone of voice. Ask open-ended questions as much as possible, which allows the child(ten) to tell what happened in their own words (not just answering yes or no).

If You Are Still Concerned

If you believe your child’s sexual behavior is not typical or age appropriate, and believe he or she may have experienced a form of sexual abuse, contact the appropriate authorities, which include police, a medical professional (such as going to the hospital), your local Child Advocacy Center, and Child Protective Services. If you’re still not sure, consult, consult, consult! It never hurts to contact an appropriate professional or authority to get further consultation. A counselor or social worker experienced in working with abused children is often a good contact, even if it’s your first contact with the mental health professional. I get calls like this in my own office from time to time, and I promise, I don’t mind talking to you. They may ask for you and/or your child to come in for a consultation just to gather more information, but please don’t let this intimidate or frighten you. We just don’t want to guide you wrong and we want to be thorough. The Child Advocacy Center in your area is also an excellent resource to contact with questions or concerns.

Stay tuned for future posts about preventing sexual abuse and/or revictimization. And, please, if you have any questions, contact someone who can help and who can provide you with accurate information.

Monongalia County Child Advocacy Center 1-800-352-6513 

Email: [email protected]

Morgantown Police Department 304-284-7522 (or 9-1-1)

Monongalia County Sheriff’s Office  304-291-7260 (or 9-1-1)

West Virginia State Police 304-285-3200 (or 9-1-1)

Creative Resilience Counseling, LLC  304-292-4050

Email: [email protected]

Special thanks to The National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

Please check out their site, they are a WEALTH OF INFORMATION about child sexual abuse and other childhood trauma!

Additional thanks to ,Educate2Empower.

They are an excellent resource for educational materials on child sexual abuse and prevention!

Parent Q&A: Questions About ADHD

Question: My ex-husband, and father to our 11-year-old son, insists that our son’s ADHD is my fault, a result of my parenting style. He has an authoritarian parenting style, while I strive to be more authoritative. My son’s counselor is confident of his ADHD diagnosis and says that ADHD isn’t anyone’s fault, but I still can’t help but question if this is something I’ve caused. Can ADHD can be caused by the way someone parents?

Answer: Parenting, whether it’s poor or optimal, cannot and does not cause ADHD. ADHD is a neurobiological, neurodevelopment disorder that is present from birth and manifests in different ways across the lifespan. While trauma or parenting can modify a child’s symptom presentation and coping in some ways, neither plays a causative role in ADHD.

Imaging studies show differences in the structure and activity between brains of people with ADHD and those without. In people with ADHD, there is a consistent pattern of below-normal activity in the neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain’s prefrontal cortex. As a result of the lower levels of dopamine, there is understimulation in the reward and motivation centers in the brain. The prefrontal cortex is found to be thinner and matures more slowly than non-ADHD brains. Please know, this does not imply any deficit in intelligence or in the ability to succeed.

An accurate diagnosis of ADHD should include:

  • an in-depth clinical history of both the child and the family
  • a physical exam to help rule out other possible causes of symptoms
  • a clinical assessment using standardized behavior rating scales or questionnaires
  • an evaluation of the child’s intelligence, aptitude, personality traits, and/or processing skills

A complete neuropsychological evaluation or educational exam is not always necessary, though if there are any concerns about learning or processing, full testing is generally recommended.

My point in relaying this information is to assure you, parents don’t cause ADHD, and parenting, regardless of your style, doesn’t cause ADHD. If your son has ADHD, he’s had it since he was born, it just may not have manifested in symptoms one may have seen until more recently because ADHD manifests differently across the lifespan and can look different from individual to individual. No worries, you didn’t cause your son’s ADHD.

Question: How do I get my child with ADHD to stop repeating behavior he CONTINUOUSLY gets in trouble for day after day? It’s exhausting. How many more times do I have to repeat the same thing? How many times do I have to discipline him for the same behavior? I put him in time out, I take things away from him. Nothing seems to make him stop just doing the same behavior all over again.

Answer: Kids with ADHD also have executive function deficits, which can contribute to children acting out more from their emotions, not logic or reasoning. Often we can tell them time after time after time, and even give them consequences for their misbehavior, but because they’re operating so much from their emotional brain, it doesn’t always click the first time (or the fiftieth). They struggle with decision making and always making better choices because of the deficits in executive functioning, which are housed in the thinking brain (the prefrontal cortex, which doesn’t fully mature until we’re in our mid-20s anyway). Remain consistent and firm. It may take multiple repeating before they get it. Also, try to wait to process feelings and the behavior or offer any logical reasoning to your child until he is calm and not totally thinking from his emotional brain. People cannot fully comprehend logical reasoning until they’re able to use their thinking brain too. Things said while they’re still in their emotional brain will most often go unheard, ADHD or no ADHD.

35 Things My Sons Should Know

In honor of Mother’s Day, I would like to share a short list of 35 of the things I want my sons to know as they grow to be young men. I have a 13-year-old son and a 6-year-old son, both as polar opposite as they could be, and I love them with everything I am and everything I will be. I was not raised by my biological mom after I was five years old; my grandparents took my brother and me in to their home to raise us until adulthood after my mom became unable to care for us anymore. Both my mother and grandmother have since passed away. I miss them always, but I can’t help but feel some sadness and disappointment that they were not able to watch my boys grow up. C and J, it is an honor and a privilege to be your mom. I love you.

Love always. xoxoxo

Things My Sons Should Know

  1. You will always be my babies. Sorry, but it’s not going to change.
  2. I have loved you even before you became a part of me.
  3. Your mom knows you better than anyone else in this world.
  4. An entire bottle of cologne will not help you smell better. (Sorry.) Go with a little over a lot.
  5. Go to school events. One day you might regret not going.
  6. Choose kindness. You never know what others are going through.
  7. Treat others the way you would like to be treated (even if you’re not being treated that way yourself).
  8. Choose your company wisely.
  9. Ask them out if you want to get to know them better. Don’t be afraid to let go if it’s not the right person for you.
  10. If s/he cheats on you, they don’t know you’re worth. Find someone who does.
  11. Don’t tell your mom you hate her. You’ll regret it.
  12. Know that I always try my best.
  13. Some people will never like you. Don’t worry about it.
  14. Don’t let the world make you bitter. Believe in what is good.
  15. Don’t believe stereotypes. Get to know people.
  16. You will make mistakes. No one is perfect all the time.
  17. Don’t let your mistakes define you, but learn from them.
  18. Strive to learn something new every day.
  19. Practice gratitude every day.
  20. Take no one for granted.
  21. Your words can build or destroy. Never forget that.
  22. Choose your words and actions wisely.
  23. Think before you act.
  24. You are more wonderful than you will ever know.
  25. Your mental health is more important than your grades or what school or program you get into.
  26. Take time to take care of yourself.
  27. No matter how angry you might get at me, I am and will always be your mom and you will always be my heart. I will never give up on you.
  28. I will never leave your side. Even if it’s in spirit, I’ll always be cheering for you.
  29. Aspire to do your best and when you’re not able, try to do better the next time.
  30. It’s okay to be angry. It’s not okay to be cruel.
  31. Spend time with family. We’ll be here throughout every broken heart and broken friendship and all the happiest moments of your life, if you let us.
  32. Be careful who you tell your secrets to. Not everyone should be privy to every aspect of your private life.
  33. Treat animals kindly. They are our best secret keepers and most faithful supports.
  34. Never pass up the opportunity to tell someone something you like or love about them.
  35. No one is strong all the time.

Happy Mother’s Day to all, moms of boys and girls, moms of grown adults, moms of furry or scaly pets, moms who have lost their child before their time, and moms who wait for their time. Blessings to each and every one of you.

The Getting to Know You Card Game

I’m always seeking out activities to do with the teenagers I work with. Much of the time, an activity I find seems either too young or too old and “boring” for this specific population. While most teens are able to participate just fine with traditional talk therapies, I still like the idea of mixing it up a little sometimes to keep it more interesting and engaging for them, especially while we’re still getting to know each other.

I created the Getting to Know You Card Game on a whim one day when I was trying to figure out a good way to get to know a particularly new teenage client of mine. She was a wonderful, bright girl who was pretty shy and I felt somewhat intrusive in our first few sessions just asking questions and getting mostly short-form answers because of her timidness. I was intrigued and I wanted to know more about her, and she was wanting to talk but couldn’t seem to find the words or the courage to open up to someone still so new.

The Game

The game only requires a standard deck of playing cards and this Getting to Know You Card Game prompt page I created. Upon starting the game, ask the teen to choose a color: red or black. This will be their color suit, and the therapist (or other player) will be the other. Then deal out all the cards to both players, each receiving an equal number of cards. The cards should be left face down in a pile. Choose someone to begin (if it’s your first time playing, I recommend the therapist go first to demonstrate how to play). The first player turns over the first card at the top of their deck to reveal the card. If it’s their suit color, notice if it’s a number card, an ace, a jack, a queen, or a king. The player looks at the prompt sheet and finds the appropriate card, then completes the prompt.

For example, if I’m red and I turn over a red 2 diamond card, I look at the prompt page and find the prompt for the number 2 – “something you don’t like to do.” I would then respond with my answer for something I don’t like to do. Then it’s the next player’s turn. If they draw a card that is their suit color, they proceed to follow the above instructions. If it’s not their suit color, play resumes to the opposite player. Play continues until you both reach the bottom of your piles. At this point, I generally shuffle the cards one more time and deal the cards for a second round, so as to keep the conversation going. You can do this as many times as you’d like. You can also switch color suits if you’d like. There are no losers in this game, but by the end you both know each other a little better.

The Prompts

The only rule of the game is that you provide a different answer each time you’re prompted to give an answer. For instance, if I draw two red 2 cards, the prompt is the same but I can’t give the same answer twice.

The prompt page can be found by clicking below, or you can just use the list below:

Getting to Know You Card Game

Ace – something you like to do

2 – something you don’t like to do

3 – a feeling you’ve had today (describe)

4 – something that helps you feel better

5 – how I cope

6 – something I did but didn’t think I could

7 – a time I felt happy this week (or something that makes me happy)

8 – a time I felt sad this week (or something that makes me feel sad)

9 – a time I felt anxious/worried/scared this week (or something that makes me feel anxious/worried/scared)

10 – a time I felt angry this week (or something that makes me feel angry)

Jack – a time I felt _______ this week (or something that makes me feel _______)

Queen – a coping skill that I want to try/am going to try

King – a goal I’m setting for myself this week

Since I created the game, I’ve played it with kids as young as eight and have even used it with young adults in the rapport building process. Occasionally, a client will ask to play it again further into treatment – no problem! It’s always helpful and often gets some good conversations started!

Hope you have fun. Happy relationship building!

50 Therapeutic Journal Prompts for Teens and Adults

The benefits of journaling have long been determined to be helpful for one’s mental health. Whether writing using fun, creative prompts or therapeutic prompts, writing can help integrate both sides of your brain, thus creating a more balanced version of you. Here are 50 prompts I use with my teen and young adult clients.

Journal Prompts for Teens and Adults

  1. What is the best compliment you have ever received?
  2. In your opinion, what is the best song ever written?
  3. If you could know one thing about the future, what would it be?
  4. What is something you feel nervous about right now?
  5. What is your happiest memory?
  6. What is something that you did that you are proud of?
  7. I get mad when…
  8. What calms you down when you get mad or upset?
  9. What is something that went right today/this week?
  10. If you could travel anywhere in the world, where would you go and why?
  11. Name two ways you can show self-control at school, at work, or at home.
  12. What would be the title of your autobiography?
  13. If you had to pick one song to play continuously, non-stop, in the background of your life, what would it be?
  14. What is one item you can’t live without?
  15. If you could add, change, or cancel one rule in your school/work, what would it be?
  16. If you could add, change, or cancel one rule at home, what would it be?
  17. Who do you trust the most and why?
  18. Where do you feel the most safe and why?
  19. What is one word you would use to describe your family and why?
  20. How do you think others view you? Why?
  21. If you could travel back in time to three years ago and visit your younger self, what advice would you give yourself?
  22. What do you like the most about yourself?
  23. Tell about a time when you felt sad. What helped you get through it?
  24. What is the first symptom you notice when you feel mad? Stressed?
  25. Who is someone you consider a real-life hero and why?
  26. Who do you wish you had a better relationship with, and what would make it better?
  27. List 10 things that make you smile.
  28. When things seem tough, I want to remember ____.
  29. What is something that you have overcome?
  30. What do you think you life would look like if you didn’t have anxiety or depression (or something else)?
  31. Write the words that you need to hear.
  32. What does your best day look like?
  33. What would you like to be remembered for?
  34. Build a list of 15 songs that can help change your mood.
  35. Write about three of your best talents.
  36. List three things that you would do if you weren’t afraid.
  37. What are five things that help you feel better when things are difficult?
  38. Write about 10 things you are grateful for.
  39. What is your favorite memory?
  40. Choose one thing that triggers your anxiety or depression, and write about a few ways that you can combat this trigger.
  41. What makes you happy?
  42. How do you define yourself?
  43. What is one fun fact about yourself?
  44. What is going right in my life?
  45. What’s bothering me? Why?
  46. One goal I want to set for myself this month…
  47. What does success look like to you?
  48. What makes you feel truly alive?
  49. What do you want your life to look like in five years? 10 years?
  50. What am I afraid of? Why?

Anxiety Series Part 4: Over 40 Parent Tips & Techniques to Help Your Child with Anxiety

If you have been following our Anxiety Series, you have read about the many ways that anxiety presents itself in children, where in Part 1, I explored the more visible signs and less obvious signs to look for as signs of anxiety in kids. In Part 2, I provided 20 simple anxiety-reducing strategies that work to integrate a child’s left and right brain hemispheres, thereby helping to regulate anxious children’s intense emotions. In Part 3, we explored the common relationship between school anxiety and separation anxiety in younger children.

In addition to the strategies you can find in Part 2 of this series, there are a number of additional strategies that parents and caregivers can do to help their anxious child, regardless of the reason why the child might be anxious. In Part 4 we’ll explore over 40 of these additional strategies that parents can use to help their anxious child.

Parent-Specific Tips

First, let’s start with some parent-specific tips to help your anxious child.

  • Manage your own state. Often we, as parents, don’t realize just how much our own emotional state affects our children. In younger children especially, who are still learning how to self-differentiate themselves and their feelings from their caregivers, our maintaining calm versus being anxious can make or break a kid when it comes to their emotional state. For instance, if we are anxious about our child going to school, if we let this anxiety present itself in all its glory, our child will also be anxious about going to school. As difficult as it might be, it’s important for parents and caregivers to somehow manage their own emotional state. If you must break down once the child walks out the door, so be it, but it’s essential that we try to hold ourselves together in regards to our anxious feelings when the child is present.
  • Validate their feelings. Please, please don’t assume that your child should have nothing to worry or stress about just because they’re a kid! When we see our child become anxious or worried, our instinct is to say things like “Don’t worry!” or “Calm down!” While we don’t mean any harm when we make these statements, few of us realize how unhelpful these phrases really are. Saying something like, “I know this is hard” or “I know how it feels to be worried sometimes too; it’s no fun” helps validate the child’s experience. Some really great phrases one can use to calm an anxious child can be found in this excellent article on The Mighty.

Read Books Together (Bibliotherapy)

There are a variety of helpful books out there that are specifically written to help anxious children by teaching them about what anxiety is, why they might be experiencing anxiety, and child-friendly strategies to try to help alleviate anxious feelings. Even if your child can read, I strongly encourage parents to read these books with your kids. Following is a short list of some of my favorite children’s books about anxiety:

  • “Worry Says What?” by Allison Edwards
  • “Please Explain ‘Anxiety’ to Me!” by Laurie Zelinger, PhD and Jordan Zelinger, MS Ed
  • “Jonathan James and the Whatif Monster” by Michelle Nelson-Schmitt
  • “Wilma Jean the Worry Machine” by Julia Cook
  • “Help Your Dragon Deal with Anxiety” by Stee Henman
  • “Scardedies Away! A Kid’s Guide to Overcoming Worry and Anxiety (made simple)” by Stacy Florila
  • “The Invisible String” by Patricia Karst
  • “I Can Handle It” by Laurie Wright
  • “What to Do When You Worry Too Much: A Kid’s Guide to Overcoming Anxiety” by Dawn Huebner
  • “What to Do When You Don’t Want to Be Apart” by Kristen Lavalee, PhD

Watch Child-Friendly Mindfulness Videos

There are numerous mindfulness and calming videos online that you can find doing a google or YouTube search Following are some of my favorites for children.

Calming Apps for Kids

You may have already discovered several calming apps out there marketed for adults, but you may or may not realize that there are also calming apps out there for kids. Here are my top three picks.

  • Mind Yeti – This is available in the form of an app or you can also visit their website at to find guided mindfulness sessions especially made with kids in mind to help children to calm down and focus their attention. Several sessions are available for free, though a paid subscription offer is also available for access to more sessions if you’d like. (I’ve found the free sessions to be more than adequate by themselves.)
  • Stop, Breathe & Think Kids – This app prompts the child to seek out a “mission” based on what they might need at that moment, such as missions to quiet, to focus, for caring and connection, or for energizing, to name a few. There are also missions children can tap into during a meltdown that can help to de-escalate them back into a calmer state of mind.
  • Breathe, Think, Do with Sesame Street – Especially designed for younger children, this app guides kids in participating in breathing exercises with the monsters of Sesame Street.

Self-Regulation Strategies

Self-regulation is a skill that allows kids (and grown-ups too) to manage their emotions, behavior, and body movement when they’re faced with a situation that’s tough to handle. And it allows them to do it while staying focused and paying attention.

Being able to self-regulate means that the child knows how to figure out that they need to calm themselves down when they get upset, they’re able to be flexible when expectations change, and they can resist giving in to frustrated outbursts (

Here are some activities you can help your child practice to help him learn to self-regulate.

  • Do Robot-Ragdoll. This exercise teaches kids how to scan their bodies for tension they might be holding in their muscles and learn how to release and relax it. Here are the instructions:
    • Stand up straight and stiff like a robot, clench your fists, and tighten all the parts of your body from your head to your toes. Hold this tight pose for 3 seconds. (Tip: Make your muscles go tight but not so tight that they hurt.)
    • Unclench your fists and make your body go floppy like a rag doll or wet spaghetti noodle. Feel how all your muscles are relaxed. Hold this relaxed pose for at least 3 seconds.
  • Belly Breathing (diaphragmatic breathing). Put your hand on your tummy, where your belly button is. Slowly breathe in and out. When you breathe in, your tummy should move out. When you breathe out, your tummy should move in. Continue to breathe in and out like this for a minute or so, watching your tummy, not your chest, move in and out as you breathe slowly. When I first teach this skill to kids and adults alike, I often ask them to start by lying down and placing an object such as a rubber duck on their stomach (naval) area, then asking them to practice breathing as described above. This helps a lot of people better see the movement of their belly going up and down over and over again.
  • Cookie Breathing. This is another kid-friendly way to teach diaphragmatic breathing. Click Cookie Breathing for a pdf of how to do it.
  • Drink water. Have your child sip cold water slowly. Doing this has a calming effect on the nervous system.
  • Blow bubbles. Blowing bubbles can help the child gain control of their breathing and thus, their mental state.

  • Do the “Downward Facing Dog” pose. This particular yoga pose helps reset the autonomic nervous system and activate several muscles in the arms, legs, and core. This stretch also helps muscles begin to burn additional blood glucose that is made available by the body’s fight or flight response.
  • Try an inversion. Bringing the head below the level of the heart (aka inversion) has a calming effect. Inverting the body has a restorative effect on the autonomic nervous system, which controls the body’s response to stress.
  • Push against a wall. This allows the body to get rid of stress hormones without having to go outside or even leave the room. Have the child try to push the wall over for 10 seconds, three times. Doing this allows the muscles to contract in a futile attempt to bring the wall down, then relax, which releases feel-good hormones into the body.
  • Go for a run. Running has been shown to reduce stress. Going for a 10 minute jog can not only affect your child’s mood immediately, its effects on their ability to cope with stress can last for several hours afterward.
  • Rock in a rocking chair. The repetitive nature of rocking offers stress relief. You can rock with your child or allow them to rock by themselves as a way to self-soothe any frenzied emotions.
  • Squish some putty. This is one of my favorite strategies. When you play with putty, your brain’s electrical impulses begin firing away from the areas associated with stress.

Visualization Tools

I found an excellent resource for various visualization exercises at Here are four of my favorites. Click Visualization Tools for Anxiety for a pdf I created that summarizes the four listed here. 

First, guide your child into a relaxed space. Find a comfortable position with few distractions. Take a few deep breaths together and explain that you’re both going to use your imagination to “say goodbye to worries.” Ask them to close their eyes and look inside their body for any place that a worry might be. (This is similar to doing what’s called a body scan. Hint: Look for areas you might be holding stress; these places are generally more tense.) See if they can find where the worry is, then ask them to describe what it looks like. Then use one (or more, if necessary) of the visualization tools.

  • Rock – Transform the worry into a rock. Get a helicopter to drop the worry into an active volcano that will melt the worry and send it shooting far into the air as lava that runs slowly far away into the ocean. Repeat the process until all the worries have been transformed.
  • Bubble – Put the worry into a bubble and set it off into space. When it has floated very far away, pop the bubble. Watch the worry vanish.
  • Worry Soap – Place the worry on your hand. Get a giant bottle of neon, sparkly soap and squirt the soap all over your hand, making foamy expanding bubbles. Scrub, scrub, scrub those bubbles. Add a blast spray of water, washing the worry away down the drain.
  • Rocket Ship – Put your worries in a rocket ship and blast it off to outer space. Send the worries up, up, up to be transported to another galaxy far, far away. Allow the rocket ship to have an infinite supply of fuel so that it can travel light years away.

After doing a visualization exercise with your child, have them do an internal body scan and see if there’s any worry left. If there’s still worry left, repeat the process.

Brain Integration Exercises

As I talked about in Part 2 of my Anxiety Series, it’s crucial that our right and left brain hemispheres and our upstairs and downstairs brain are integrated. This simply means that all parts of our brain are communicating and working together. If you (or your child) is struggling with intense anxiety or other intense emotions, your right brain and downstairs brain are in overdrive and leaving out the left and upstairs brain, which is problematic because we are unable to think logically and rationally and be able to effectively problem solve when we’re only using the right and downstairs brain. Instead, we stay dysregulated longer and more intensely.

So how do we (and our kids) integrate our brain so we’re not stuck in our emotions? There are several strategies we can use, but here are some Brain Integration Strategies to try. These strategies are simple and amazing game changers! I’ve had parents of clients tell me that these are literally like “reset buttons” for their kids when they are feeling extremely anxious or otherwise emotionally dysregulated. Because Part 2 addressed this more thoroughly, I won’t list these strategies again in this post, but please refer back to Part 2. 

Other Coping Strategies

There are numerous other strategies we can teach our kids to help them better cope with their anxiety. Here are just a few more techniques to add to your toolbox.

  • Sing out loud. The physical act of singing out loud has been shown to release endorphins, the “feel good” chemical in the brain.
  • Count backwards from 100. Counting gives the child the chance to focus on something other than what’s bothering them; counting backwards offers an added concentration challenge without overwhelming their brain. What if your child isn’t able to count to 100 or count backwards from this high? Simply figure out a lower number, such as 50 or 60, that they are able to count backwards from based on their developmental and skill levels.
  • Repeat a mantra. Create a mantra that you and your child can use to help them calm down. “I am calm” or “I am relaxed” work well, but feel free to get creative and making something personal to you and your child!
  • Pop bubble wrap. Even most adults can tell you that this strategy is somehow pleasing and a good way to release stress.
  • Help them name their emotion. Often when kids become overwhelmed, it’s because they have difficulty identifying the negative thoughts and feelings they’re having. Teach your kids some emotion vocabulary, and ask your child to give their feeling a name, then help them talk back to it.
  • Teach your child how to rate the intensity of their feeling(s). You can google “feelings thermometer” or look on Pinterest to search for some kid-friendly versions. You can also teach them how to rate the intensity using their fingers. Click Feelings Intensity Rating Scale for a simple strategy that helps kids use their hand to demonstrate just how bad (or good) they’re feeling.
  • Strings of worry. Another way to help your child rate the intensity of what they’re feeling, Strings of Worry is a technique where you use a ball of yarn and scissors to cut off the amount of string correlated with the amount of worry they’re feeling. The longer the string, the more worried they are.
  • Puppet role-plays. If you have puppets at home, or can make some sock puppets, practice and role-play out anxiety-provoking situations with your child using the puppets. Not feeling particularly crafty? You can download a Sock Puppets app for iPhone or iPad (and maybe Android?) and role-play that way!
  • Draw a face for the fear/worry.
  • Create a comic using the worry monster and the child as characters.
  • Play The Worry Brain and Happy Brain Game (aka Talk Back to Your Brain). To teach your child how to talk back to their brain. try out this game. First you will be the Happy Brain and your child will be the Worry Brain.
    • Ask your child to say one thing that makes them worry. (Or play the game upon hearing your child state a worry.)
    • You present a contradicting positive scenario related to that worry. The idea is to provide a positive, practical thought that your child can easily understand.
    • Then try to switch roles. Let the child practice saying something positive this time.
    • Example:
      • Worry Brain: “I don’t feel good about going to the new school.”
      • Happy Brain: “I will meet new people and make new friends in the new school.”
    • Soon your child will be able to carry this dialogue in their head and will be able to talk back to their own worry brain when it talks to them.
  • Create a Calming Jar. You can check out Pinterest for ideas and instructions on how your child can create one of his own jars to help him relax and calm down.
  • Read/write an inspiring superhero story.
  • Make stress balls. Search Pinterest for how to make do-it-yourself (DIY) stress balls for ideas.
  • Worry Jar. Each time your child thinks of a worry, have them write (or draw) it on a slip of paper. Then have them fold the slip and place it inside a mason jar and seal the top so that the worry can be contained in a safe place until they feel they can better address the worry at a later, future time.
  • Worry Stones. I love making worry stones! They’re super easy. The idea is that the child can carry their worry stone in their pocket and rub the stone when they’re feeling anxious, releasing some of the extra energy that the worry is giving off and creating stress. Easy, excellent instructions for how to create worry stones can be found at

  • Colors of Feelings. For this activity, you’ll need paper and a box of colored pencils, crayons, or paint. The idea is to give your child the opportunity to separate themselves from their worries and concerns.
    • Help your child identify which color they identify or associate with for each emotion they are feeling. (Example: Red = Angry; Orange = Worried; Blue = Sad; Yellow = Happy).
    • Ask the child to draw or paint a picture with the colors that express their emotions.
    • You can also be the one to draw the picture for them using a pencil, then let them fill in the colors according to how they’re feeling.

Hope these strategies are helpful for you and your children! Feel free to leave a comment if you have some more helpful suggestions for how to help anxious children!

Anxiety Series Part 3: School Anxiety and Its Relationship to Separation Anxiety

In Part 1 of our Anxiety Series, you read about the many ways that anxiety presents itself in children, exploring the more obvious visible signs and the more subtle ways that anxiety can show up in kids. In Part 2, I provided 20 simple anxiety-reducing strategies that work like magic to integrate a child’s left and right brain hemispheres, thereby helping to regulate anxious children’s intense emotions.

Now in Part 3, we will explore two very common forms of anxiety that are found in many children and teens today: school anxiety and separation anxiety.

What is School Anxiety?

School anxiety, also sometimes called school phobia or anxiety-based school refusal, occurs when a child’s anxiety makes him reluctant to attend school or even flat out refuse to go to school.

School anxiety may be the result of a broad range of anxiety-related concerns, like social anxiety, worry, panic, separation anxiety, and/or depression. However, in your kids especially, school anxiety is almost always related, in some part, to separation anxiety, though the anxieties around school can be myriad. School anxiety is not simply a child wanting to skip school!

Other Reasons for Anxiety-Based School Refusal

Starting a new school, moving, and a number of other stressful events can trigger the onset of school refusal. Some kids fear that they won’t do well in school, have fear of another student, fear getting sick in front of peers, or might be hypersensitive to teachers’ criticisms, regardless of how well-intentioned and constructive their criticisms might be. Other kids might start exhibiting school anxiety after they’ve been out sick or during or after a parent’s illness.

Anxiety-based school refusal is seen more commonly between the ages of 5 and 6 and between the ages of 10 and 11, and also at times of transition, such as entering middle or high school, but school anxiety can really occur at any age.

Signs of Anxiety

In Part 1 of our series, I reviewed various visible signs and less obvious signs you might see in children that are indicative that they are struggling with anxiety. Let’s review those briefly.

Visible Signs of Anxiety

  • physical distress (shaking, crying, hyperventilating, screaming)
  • fleeing, escaping
  • outright statements of anxiety or worry
  • outright questions expressing fears
  • refusal to engage in activities that cause distress
  • extreme distress upon contact with feared object, person, or place
  • refusal to be alone or without a parent
  • repeated rituals
  • panic attacks

Less Obvious Signs of Anxiety

  • clingy behavior
  • irritability
  • avoidance behavior
  • complaints of physical illness or physical ailments (i.e., headache, stomachache)
  • reassurance-seeking behavior
  • argumentative behavior
  • reluctance to try new things
  • extreme shyness, sensitivity
  • being easily distracted
  • slowness, procrastination
  • overly cautious behavior, indecision
  • exacting standards
  • sleep difficulties
  • physical aggression
  • threats of suicide to avoid anxiety-provoking situations

What is Separation Anxiety?

Separation anxiety is displayed as anxiety and excessive worry around leaving one’s attachment figures and/or the home, and it is the number one reason why kids are chronically truant and/or tardy from school. In fact, as many as 75 percent of kids with separation anxiety experience some form of school refusal behavior.

The symptoms a child experiences when separated from their attachment figure(s) and/or home are so distressing, they will do uncharacteristic things to avoid feeling this distress, such as:

  • throwing a fit
  • hiding
  • refusing to move
  • saying/yelling mean things
  • become ill or pretend to be ill
  • getting in trouble so they can get suspended or expelled so that they can stay at home
  • tantruming
  • drawing out their morning routine to the point that they will be late for school

Following are common signs of Separation Anxiety Disorder:

  • Distress when anticipating or experiencing separation from the home and/or attachment figure(s)
  • Worry about losing attachment figure
  • Worry about attachment figure being harmed
  • Worry about being kidnapped, lost, or otherwise separated from attachment figure
  • Reluctance or refusal to sleep away from home
  • Reluctance or refusal to leave the house
  • Nightmares about being separated from attachment figure or home
  • Complaints of somatic symptoms when separated from attachment figure or home

How to Help

There are numerous strategies parents can use to try to help alleviate their child’s anxiety-based school refusal as well as help reduce the worries about separation. A few parent-specific tips include:

  • Manage your own state, as the parent/caregiver. Kids are highly intuitive and can very often pick up on their parent’s mood and emotions. If you are displaying anxiety, your child can pick up on it and it will most likely make them anxious too. Try to be strong when you and your child are in the process of parting, at least until after you’re out of sight and outside of hearing distance.
  • Be consistent. If you say you’re going to pick your child up at 3:30 pm, please do all you can to fill that promise to her. Of course sometimes things happen that are unavoidable, but this should be the exception, not the norm. Do what you say you’re going to do.
  • Validate their feelings. Acknowledge their worry or fear and let them know that you understand this may be hard, but encourage and assure them that they can handle this and that you will always return.
  • Create a (quick) goodbye ritual with your child, and use it every time you part. Creativity and even silliness can be a bonus here, to help your child know that separating doesn’t have to be such a bad thing and that you love them no matter how far apart you are. Remind her that you will see her again later (if you are able, tell her when that will be).
  • Whatever you do, do not sneak away when separating from your child in effort to prevent a tear fest or tantrum. This only increases the child’s worry about being apart from you.

Stay tuned for Part 4 of my Anxiety Series, where I will offer a much larger variety of tips and strategies you can use to help your child with anxiety!

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